News around SPL
News archive
February 2015 Printing a nozzle

Mark is currently printing a preliminary version of the 10k nozzle. Later he will make a time laps video.


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July 2012 SPL welcomes Devis Tonon in it's team

We welcome Devis Tonon as a new team member. He holds a PhD in Applied Physics Technical University of Eindhoven) and a MSc in Aerospace engineering (Polytechnic University of Turin). He has experience in aeroacoustics, thermoacoustics and fluid dynamics. He will be a great help for us solving the thermoacoustic issues in one of our engines.

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Sept 2011 10 kN engine at full throttle, modification on test stand

Short summary: The engine ran on Ethanol/LOX, O/F about 1.95, thrust nearly a metric ton and we got a (measured!) ISP of about 232s at a chamber pressure of 21 bar... which is quite a good number! We pushed the chamber pressure further, but ended up with a molten nozzle (for optimizing combustion, short burning times are sufficient... so we only use mild steel nozzles at this state of the tests). More below...
Some history: Some months ago we further modified our test stand to improve the sound suppression of the sound suppressing tunnel to be prepared to test the new 10 kN engine. For this we added a water injection ring into the movable tube in which we fire the engines. This cools the tube and reduces the noise level about 10 dBA:

(At the end of the tube you can see the injector with removed nozzle) At the downstream end of the tube we additionally mounted a pair of water cooled wedges. They produce a shock in the supersonic exhaust, slowing down the gas speed to subsonic. This reduced the sound level for nearly 20 dBA!. Now we can fire our 10 kN engine even at night ;-) This was also used in the silos of US-ICBM's and is covered in several patents like US5422443.

Then we fired the engine the first time (The date in the movie is wrong). Ignition happens at the time 15:40:30. In the upper right frame you see starting the water injection into the tube prior ignition.


We noticed a poor O/F of about 1.0 and found the source of the problem in a collapsed LOX-Filter upstream of the LOX-main valve. We removed it and fired the engine without it yesterday.


We increased the chamber pressure further and further and finally hit the limit what the steel nozzle can handle: High speed video with 600 frames/s.

The nozzle showed some nice patterns of molten metal:

No damage to the rest of the engine or test stand. Only damage to the engineers ego :-) We had a lot of fun yesterday!

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May 2011 SPL tests 1 ton thrust rocket engine

On the 28 May, SPL run the one ton thrust liquid propelled rocket engine (SLR 10k-I) for three times successfully.
We also tested our new water cooling system, which reduces sound emissions and the temperature inside the sound absorber. The first tests are part of a longer test programme of the SLR 10k-I. Have also a look on our media page with press release and articles.

1 ton thrust engine
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April 2010 SPL meets Prof. Dr. Dr. Oliver Ullrich and Dana Simmet at UZH
Isabell Buttron and Adrian Mettauer, both PR & Marketing of SPL, got the opportunity to visit the research laboratories of UZH's (University of zurich's) Division of Space Biotechnology at Zurich-Irchel. There, Prof. Dr. Dr. Oliver Ullrich, Adjunct Professor of Space Biotechnology (UZH/University of Magdeburg) and Dipl.-Biol. Dana Simmet provided an insight into their fascinating zero-g research.

After a tour through the laboratories, where the effects of altered gravity forces on cellular and molecular mechanisms are investigated, the SPL associates received an introduction to the various scientific projects. Amongst others, the scientists are performing experiments on board of parabolic flights like with the Novaspace-owned Airbus A300 ZERO-G, based at Bordaux/France. The aim of this research is to find solutions to the various health-related problems astronauts are facing during and after a mission under zero gravity conditions, such as a profound decline in immune function, bone and muscle atrophy.
Prof. Oliver Ullrich Dana Simmet
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25. January 2010 Mirage III rocket engine was handed over to SPL

SPL bought a Swiss Mirage III SEPR rocket engine from a private collector for a symbolic price. It was handed over on the 15th January in La Brévine (Jura). The engine had been developed by the SEP (Société Européenne de Propulsion) and was first tested in February 1962. It was used by the Mirage III as an additional booster for tactical maneuvers like zoom climbs. On the 15th of May 1963 a prepared French Mirage III reached 26.06 km altitude and set an official record for France, still standing today. Swiss pilots flew the fully equipped Mirage III S up to 24 kilometers until the 1980s. The Swiss Air Force had used twenty engines from May 1969 to April 1990. They were license built by Hispano-Suiza and had performed 2'170 rocket flights. SPL has one of them, now.

The liquid cooled engine could develop 15kN thrust for nearly two minutes and could be re-ignited in flight. It operated with nitric acid and aircraft supplied kerosene. The ignition was made with a hypergolic nitric acid TX2 combustion. The chamber was fed by two centrifugal pumps driven by an shaft coming from the aircraft turbojet engine. The chamber is a saddle design made of aluminum which can be completely disassembled for maintenance. The chamber is cooled by the nitric acid.


  • Holding the altitude record of France: 15.05.1963, a Mirage III reached 26.06 km
  • most built aircraft rocket engine (275 built)
  • most used man-rated rocket engine (over 20'000 flights)
  • world record of manned rocket flights (over 20'000 flights)
  • world's most reusable rocket engine (average of 35 flights between general overhaul)
  • round trip times < 15 minutes has been demonstrated.

The engine is a freshly refurbished one, just out of the arsenal. We will not fire it again, but we can learn a *lot* from its design and also from the instructions for the operatinal ground support. Most of it applies to the operations of nowadays and intended rocket planes.

Two AIAA Papers about the development:
The SEPR 844 Reusable liquid Rocket Engine for Mirage Combat Aircraft, AIAA-90-1835
Reusable Man-Rated Rocket Engines, AIAA-43160-765

A collection of pics when we inspected it (some are from the museum in Le Bourget) :

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24. October 2009 Eugen Reichl, aerospace author, visited SPL

Eugen Reichl honored us with a visit of our facilities. He is a German aerospace author and employee at the EADS Astrium. He published several books and booklets, like the "Typenkompass; Bemannte Raumfahrzeuge; seit 1960" (see all books on He also writes for the German space magazine "Raumfahrt Concret". 

Have also a look on , the base-block of a multi-media spaceflight and astronomy portal operated by Maria-Pflug Hofmayr and Eugen Reichl.

Eugen Reichl
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23. September 2009 SwissCube - first Swiss satellite successfully launched

The first ever signals sent from a Swiss satellite in space have been received in the Lausanne region. It’s a unique moment for students, professors and of course the whole nation.

The satellite was successfully launched by the Indian PSLV-C14 this morning (Swiss time). The first signals were heard at 12:20 from California and the Netherlands. The Space Center Lausanne recognized the call sign at 13:20 – so, all systems are running well.

SPL congratulates the SwissCube crew!

Related links:

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9. Mai 2009 SPL, Talis Enterprise GmbH and the Space Tourism Society - Malaysian Chapter (STS-MC) are signing a certificate of cooperation

The certificate of cooperation brings the skills and networks of SPL, Talis Enterprise GmbH and STS-MC officially together. The goal is, to develop sophisticated products for science or spacetourism purpose. The roles are:

  • SPL: Propulsion components
  • Talis Enterprise GmbH: Airframes, simulators; aerodynamic and thermodynamic skills
  • STS-MC: Merchandiser and operator of products; worldwide connections especially to universities.
For further details, please refer to the press release (only in German available) from the 9th of Mai under the topic "Media"

international meeting
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3. December 2008 SPL gives lectures at the adult evening classes

Hans Ulrich Ammann, CEO SPL, and Adrian Mettauer, PR & Marketing, hold a lecture at the Volkshochschule in Basel. They presented the current state of all projects of SPL and gave a brief view into the world of propulsion..

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September 2008 SPL meets project partners in Malaysia 

Adrian Mettauer met the Space Tourism Society - Malaysian Chapter (STS MC) in Malaysia. They run a roadshow for the first Malaysian rocket plane, using an existing SPL rocket engine. It will be a scaled version of a suborbital spaceplane and will be controlled by remote. It is part of a research and development programme, which is also related to the governments vision 2020 (being closer to industry nations in 2020). The  purpose of the plane is to test the SPL propulsion system in flight, the trajectory for the suborbital spaceplane and the design. It will be equipped with cameras and sensors. Its name is M-R2D2.
The goal of the roadshow was, to keep stakeholders informed and to optain support from the government - which they got. Adrian Mettauer and the STS-MC crew met the chief minister of Perak state (see picture), the executive directors of the crown prince and executive directors of the ATSB (Astronautic Technology). Adrian Mettauer also hold a lecture at the Putra Malaysia University.  

chief minister

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10. June 2008 SPL attends launch of TMA 12 in Baikonur

Hans Ammann and his wife Monika visited Baikonur to attend the launch Soyus TMA-12. They also met icons of the space history like Valentina Tereshkova (the fist woman in space) and Sergei Krikalev (he holds the record of total time spent in space: 803 days!). The pictures below can be enlarged by clicking on them.

Liftoff! Monika (on the right) with the first woman in space, Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (on the left)

Rollout of the booster

Hans in one of the assembly halls
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16. November 2007 Astronaut Nicollier visits SPL

Dr. Claude Nicollier honored us with as visit of our facilities. Claude Nicollier is the only Swiss ESA astronaut. As a veteran of four space shuttle flights, Claude has logged more than 1000 hours in space. He flew as a mission specialist on STS-46 in 1992, STS-61 in 1993, STS-75 in 1996 and STS-103 in December 1999. You can read his CV here. Have a look at his homepage.

27. April 2007 SPL introduces its products and services

We incorporated the portfolio of our products and services in the web page. Have a look what we can do for you here. We also added a media page with our appearance in the printed media and TV.

21. February 2007 Staging mechanism designed for X-BOW I

Our students at FHNW finished their work on the stage separation mechanism for the X-Bow I (which could also be used on AUSROC 2.5). See also the news of 26. January 2007 and the publications area for their report. Thanks to Prof. U. Bopp and his students.
Other activities: In the time frame of the next 2 months we will test a new 10 kN (~ 2000 lbs) engine. Project Enterprise is also progressing fast. Stay tuned...

An animation of the mechanism. Click on the image to get a high resolution animation A closeup of the mechanism. Click on the image to get a high resolution animation
6. August 2006 2.5 kN engine at full throttle

Diamonds are beautiful, specially shock diamonds. We fired the 2.5 kN engine at full throttle and produced some spectacular pictures. We got a very smooth burning without any transients and a very clean and symmetric jetwash without any streaks. At the exit of the 70% bell nozzle the jet is almost transparent. Since we expanded to 0.7 bar the jet is slightly over expanded. We retracted the sound absorber tubus of the test stand to have a look at the fist four Mach diamonds. Click on the picture to get a high resolution image. High resolution DIVX Video of several firings (9 Mbyte)!:

26. April 2006 SPL on TV!
  • We finally inaugurated our test cell and its corresponding equipment. Everything works more or less perfect. We fired our 2.5 kN Engine several times. Some impressions of a typical working day at SPL (4.1 Mb) PDf-Doc with lots of pictures
  • The official Swiss TV visited us and made a nice broadcast about our work (commentary in German though):

    Official Real-Media stream from the Swiss Broadcast Station 
    Mpeg4 File, (10 Mb)
    Windows wmv file, low res (5 Mb)

    Hot firing of the 2.5 kN engine. The engine is still running in heat-sink mode. Next step will be a regenerative cooled configuration as already tested in the late 2003
25. January 2006 Status January 06
  • The test cell and it's corresponding equipment are finally finished. We will fire in February :-)
  • Two student projects ended with their thesis work. One project was the successor of the last year project "Designing and building of a stage separation mechanism" and the other project was the "design of a gas turbine to power turbo pumps":
    Turbine rotor and stator row. It's a Curtis impulse turbine with a constant pressure after the nozzle section. There is still lot of room for optimization though... Turbine test stand. You see the gas generator on the top, the water break on the left.
10. December 2004

Various projects in progress

  • Project Enterprise. We recently started the project ENTERPRISE with our partner Talis-Institut (sorry, you will see nothing if Javascript is disabled). Just go to the Talis webpage and choose the link to the Project Enterprise (sorry, no permalink on the site) and our report in the september edition of the Talis online magazine T.I.M. (A local copy of our article: as a HTMLor PDF document, both in German)
  • Current student projects:
    • Construction of a test bench for small turbines. The goal of this student project at FHBB was the design, building and testing of a test bench where modified turbines of automotive turbo chargers can be tested as a power plant for turbo pumps. Our long term intention is a small low cost turbo pump for small rocket engines. The reports can be found on our publication page
    • Designing and building of a stage separation mechanism. The students worked out several variants for a stage separation mechanism which can be used on rockets with a diameter of 300 mm like X-Bow I or AUSROC 2.5. It can also be used to deploy recovery equipment. The reports can be found on our publication page
  • Our encapsulated test cell is now ready for use. It cost us more than two years of hard work. This is one of the reasons for the rare news updates. Have also a look at the live weather data here.
The orange container houses the sound absorbing device. The grey container with the fan is the actual test cell. In the background the control room which contains the data aquisition.
The rocket engine to be tested is built up on the table of the test bench.
It fires into an extension tubus of the absorber tunnel.
The test bench is bolted to a concrete block which is in turn connected to a 30 tons foundation plate.
The total mass of the test stand cell and the sound absorbing tunnel amounts to more than 100 tons!
The current development status permits testing engines with a thrust of up to 30 kN.
By prolongation of the sound
absorbing tunnel and a slight upgrade of the test bench the range can be enlarged to approx. 120 kN.



23. March 2004 SPL files its first Patent
Device for Pressurizing Propellant Tanks (Patent pending)
After a series of successful prototype tests we filed our first patent application for a new Tridyne pressurization system, with a wide commercial and military application area. The patent has been lodged at the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property at the 16th February. It is thought to be flown in ASRI's AUSROC 2.5. A brief description can be found
10. February 2004 Ongoing work on the test cell and sound suppressing system
The work on the encapsulated test cell and sound suppressing system set us back for more than a year! Hopefully we can fire the next rocket engine inside this new infrastructure in the timeframe of the upcoming 4 months. The huge stainless muffler tube was mounted inside the 40 ft muffler container. This container contains also water pumps for the water curtain, filters, burst walls etc. The muffler tube will be surrounded by sand. From the attached test cell we fire into the muffler tube, the water curtain inside the tube and a labyrinth at the end will provide further noise reduction. See also the news from 19. May 2003
Under Fire, without convergent nozzle
Peter inserts the muffler tube into the 40 Ft container. The bolted down muffler tube. This is necessary to prevent the tube from buoying upwards in the surrounding sand bed. Vibrations absorbers insulate the tube from the walls of the container.
  • FHBB (University of applied science Basel) and SPL continue their cooperation with two R&D projects:
    • Continuation of the design of a small, low cost turbopump (see also news 19.Mai 03 and 22.Jan. 03)
    • Concept, design and testing of a rocket stage separation mechanism.



22. Januray 2003 First firing with the regenerativly cooled 2.5 kN LOX/Ethanol engine!

Two students of FHBB (University of applied science Basel), Gianni Ermini and Florian Kaiser, finished their diploma thesis, made in the frame of a research program at SPL and presented the results in a public exhibition. The focus of their work was on designing, building and testing of a regenerative cooled combustion chamber with 2.5 kN/560 lbs thrust (see also the news entry of 10th November 01). The students have analysed the heat flux through the chamber walls and the heat transfer into the coolant (water, kerosene and pure ethanol) . They have also developed a code to optimise the size and shape of the cooling channels. Following a low cost approach, the combustion chamber was made of aluminium. Their diploma thesis can be downloaded here (german!). In the meantime we at SPL upgraded the test stand, so it is now fully operational for LOX/hydrocarbon with tank pressures up to 5 MPa. Finally we successfully fired the chamber 28th December 2002. A veritable firework for new year's eve and we hope a god omen for the New Year :-)

In an ongoing partnership of SPL with FHBB it was decided, that a next step will be the design of a small, low cost turbopump. The project starts with a radial inflow turbine derived from a automotive turbo charger.
SPL thanks FHBB, Prof. Dr. Peter von Böckh and the two students for the great teamwork! A more detailed description of the engine and tests can be found here.

Parts of the combustion chamber. click to enlarge...
Inner liner with nozzle insert. Clcik to enlarge...
Parts of the combustion chamber. The chamber is designed to be fully demountable to test various configurations. This is also important to inspect the liner and its cooling channels after test runs. Click on the image to enlarge... The inner liner with the milled cooling channels. One of the two halves of the throat closeout has been removed. The closeout mates very precisely with the liner to prevent any bypass flow in the throat area. The temperatures in the cooling channels are measured by thermocouples of 0.5mm diameter that are mounted through small openings in the outer shell and in the closeout.
A second version of the liner has been machined with more cooling channels. This will reduce the pressure drop, but results in a lower velocity in the cooling channels and therefore in a lower heat transfer as the mass flow of coolant remains the same. Click on the image to enlarge ...
Click on picture to start 4 minute movie (7 MB !!)
test stand. Click to enlarge ...

The picture shows a test run under rel. low chamber pressure (o.6 MPa) using LOX/ethanol at an O/F of 1.3. In this test, the injector was equipped with only 3 injector elements (see 1st September 02 and 11th March 02) . Tests with full chamber pressure of 2.5 MPa will be conducted as soon as we have finished the muffler system.
4 min hires Realmedia movie of the event (7.3 Mb) .

4 min lowres Realmedia movie of the event (2.6 Mb) .

An overview of the test setup. One can clearly see the frozen LOX line and LOX valve, the regen. chamber with it's feeding lines, the torch igniter and several thermocouples. The LOX tank is on the top left.
1. September 2002 Completion of the LOX/HC engine and test stand in sight
It seems that our work on the test stand and the cryogenic equipment to test the 4 kN LOX/HC engine are coming to a important milestone: The first firing of a LOX/HC engine with an noteworthy thrust level. This is also a requirement for the thesis work of our students at FHBB (see also the news entry from 10. November 2001)l. The next news entry will hopefully show you a complete test setting or even a working LOX engine :-)
Under Fire, without convergent nozzle
The torch igniter (see also news entry from 3. March 2001) fires through the injector plate of the heavy walled 4 kN LOX/HC engine. On the left: the attached copper case of the torch igniter with the spark plug.A more detailed view of the injector plate can be found here. The LOX-valve as designated on the test stand. The assembly will be insulated, the extended shaft and actuator will be heated to prevent them from icing.
13. April 2002 Latest firing of the 12 kN TETHIS I Solid Motor

Saturday the 13. April, we finished the solid propulsion program with a firing of the 12 kN TETHIS I motor. The solid program is suspended now, so we can concentrate our efforts to the liquid biprop development. More information's (mainly the development of the TETHIS I motor and of igniters) can be found on the project pages soon. The firing was done with a configuration of two different propellant compositions:

  • Standard AP/AL/HTPB
  • Ditto, but containing 0.6 % CATOCENE burning rate catalyst to give the motor a good ignitability and a heavy boost during start of the rocket.

30 ms after pressing the red button, the motor delivered full thrust of 12 kN. The new MagTef igniter has done a good job! Virtually no pressure peaks occurred. No smoking around for half a second like often seen in HPR rocketry!

Click to start a movie
The motor under full thrust of 12 kN. Peak thrust was a bit more than expected, the thrust test stand jumped 3 cm (Note: The thrust test stand is bolted to a concrete block of 2.5 metric tons!). Click on the image to start a movie 800 kB, needs the latest Real-Player) Test stand and motor after firing. More infos about the test stand can be found here and here.
One of the grain segments. The grain close to the igniter contains 0.6% CATOCENE burning rate catalyst to improve the ignitability and to give an initial boost during liftoff. We also tested a new type of igniter made of sintered Magnesium/Teflon used in the actual test. After only 30 ms (!) the motor reached its full thrust of 12'000 N without any pressure peaks.
11. March 2002 Injector for the heavy walled liquid propellant engine ready

We have finished the injector of the heavy-walled modular combustion chamber (see also the news from 27. July 01 and 18. October 99). The modular concept of the injector allows various configurations.

The injector plate with the inserted injector elements. The element in the center is a Pentad surrounded by six Triplet injector elements. The elements are made of a Copper/Chromium/Zirconium alloy. A look through a microscope on the central Pentad. The holes were made by a special deep-hole drilling process to get very smooth holes and a perfect alignment. Note also the sharp edges and the absence of any burr. The piece is showed as drilled, no additional treatment was made.
One of the injector elements. The modular design allows different configurations during the test phase. The final injector will be a monolithic design made of aluminum. A special flow turbine will measure the LOX flow on the test stand. A magnetical pickup counts the revolutions.

















10. November 2001 Cooperation between SPL and FHBB goes on with the development of copper combustion chamber

23. April 1999 SPL and FHBB (University of applied science Basel) have concluded their future cooperation. In the past semesters FHBB has analyzed the behaviour of various injection-systems in a high-pressure environment (see also the news entries 23. April 99, 16. November 1999, 26. November 2000 and 23. January 2001).
Today, we concluded a further partnership to design, build and test a regeneratively cooled combustion chamber. The students will analyze the heat flux through the chamber walls and the heat transfer into the coolant. They will also optimize the size and shape of the cooling channels. The combustion chamber will consist of a inner copper liner with machined cooling channels and an outer shell of electro plated nickel. We are very proud of gaining this partnership!

A rendering of the inner copper liner of the X-Bow I engine. At the ground of the cooling channels, the wall's thickness is only about 0.8 mm to get the best heat transfer into the cooling fluid and to minimize thermal stress The combustion chamber consists of an inner copper liner with machined cooling channels and an outer shell of electro plated nickel. The picture shows a detail of a sample cutted out of of the electro plated combustion chamber wall.  

Note: This will be the last news entry until February 2002 because of the webmasters trip to Australia. Among other things, he will also participate in the 11th conference of the Australian Space Research Institute ASRI (see also the presentation we gave there).

14. September 2001 SPL is visiting  NERO launch campaign in the Netherlands
NERO has organized a launch campaign at ASK (an artillery test area of the dutch army). SPL took the chance to see all the "northern lights" we only knew from their web pages, mailing list etc. till then. Thanks guys, that was a great day!
  The picture shows a rocket powered by a KN/Sorbitol motor. It was build by the belgium amateur group VRO. The start was perfect but the recovery system failed :-( The SSRV-1  (Small Scale Research Vehicle 1) build and flown by the danish group DSC. The motor was also a "Candy"-Motor. The rocket also had a video downlink. The above picture was taken from the DSC home page with their permission.
13. April 2001 First shot on the new test stand with a hot water motor
To consecrate our new test stand, we mounted a hot water rocket motor on the test table. This motor is a remnant from a former project (JATO). The vessel is rated up to 6 MPa by national vessel authorities. Special thanks to Mr. André Hool who made the motor available to us. 
The test stand mounted on a concrete block of 2.5 metric tons. In front the regulator for the 3 x3 kW heating cartridges. Close to the nozzle one can see the security valves and the pilot valve for the nozzle's internal valve. A view into the nozzle (20 mm diameter) with its integrated valve.
Hansueli Ammann just pushed the red button. All the equipment is certified by the national authorities, so it shouldn't be dangerous standing beside of it. The Thrust curve at a hot water/steam pressure of 4 MPa. The peak at the beginning is the result of sloshing water during opening the nozzle's valve.
Older news entries
27. July 2001 Progress in building up the test stand and liquid biprop engine
3. March 2001 "Brief case engine", demonstration engine and igniter
27. January 2001 SPL shows their work at the SPACE FORUM 2001
23. January 2001 Diploma exhibition at FHBB
13. January 2001 Invitation to the SPACE FORUM 2001, 27. January
26. November 2000 Cold spray tests at FHBB in progress
25. August 2000 ASRI visits SPL
28. September 2000 Gallery pages added to the SPL-homepage!
14. July 2000 Solid Propulsion at SPL
8. July 2000 Public meeting at SPL
16. April 2000 Successful Tridyne Experiments
2. April 2000 Our Project pages are available now!
22. January 2000 SPL's first public appearance, SRV exhibition
16. November 1999 Diploma exhibition at FHBB
18. October 1999 Modular heavy walled test chamber finished
31. August 1999 Enhancements to our Micro Test Stand, NASA SP-papers available
22. June 1999 Links- & Sponsor pages added to the SPL-Homepage!
13. May 1999 Test-setting for Kerosene valve 
27. April 1999 Development of a new light-weight valve (for both Kerosene/LOX)
23. April 1999 Co-operation between SPL and graduate school FHBB
24. March 1999 About-Pages & Guestbook added to the SPL-Homepage, Memberzone: SMS available!
13. March 1999 Our first optically-accessible chambre
11. March 1999 Added new pages to the SPL-Homepage
26. February 1999 New ignition-system tested
11. February 1999 Data-Acquisition installed
31. January 1999 SPL has its own domain and webserver
30. January 1999 Test with new ignition-combustion-chamber failed
28. December 1998 Tests with a small combustion-chamber and convergent/divergent nozzle
Autumn 1998 Founding of SPL

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